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PGD, PGS are diagnostic methods, which enable us to test some of the genetic attributes of embryos prior their transfer in to the uterus. From an embryo (D3) we are able to extract 1 or 2 cells and put them through the genetic analysis.
Embryos usually survive this procedure without any harm and are developing in a normal manner.
The pre-implantation screening helps to discover obtained or inherited deviations in the number or the structure of a chromosome. These abnormalities are often connected with spontaneous abortion.Using pre-implantation tests we can also discover changes (mutations) of particular genes connected to particular inherited disease which has occurred in the family (PGD).
PGS and PGD methods are recommended to couples when:
- The age of the lady is over 35 years and therefore the risk of a birth of a child with higher number of chromosomes (i.e. Down syndrome) is increased.
- There occurred a miscarriage or birth of a fetus with chromosomal deviation.
- There are repeatedly failed IVF treatments or repeated miscarriages in early phase of gravidity.
- There is known chromosomal conversion in one of the partner’s results. Without been obviously affected this could lead to a production of affected sperm or eggs and handing it over to descendants.
- Where there is an illness connected to sex (the illness affects males only, but it is handed over by female – for example hemophilia).
- When one of the partners underwent or is undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
The Pre-implantation diagnostic can not fully guarantee the choice of an embryo which has no defect. It is given by the principle of the method. We can test only particular spectrum of deviations which could compromise the embryo of a given couple the most. As well as we are unable to guarantee the success of the IVF program meaning implantation of an embryo after the transfer and creation of a pregnancy. We can not guarantee birth of a healthy child. All this is affected by loads of other factors.